7 Best Substrates for Leopard Geckos (And Which Ones to Avoid)

*This post contains affiliate links, if you buy through a link on this post we may receive a commission.

The best substrate for a leopard gecko is a non-adhesive, burrow-friendly substrate like reptile carpet, tile, or paper towels. Leopard geckos can ingest loose substrates such as sand, gravel, or wood chips, leading to impaction and digestive issues.

Fear not, my fellow gecko-lovers! In this article, we’ll explore substrate options that tick all the boxes regarding safety, coziness, and ease of upkeep.

Believe it or not the type of substrate you use can have a major impact on your leopard geckos overall health and happiness.

But we won’t stop at what to use – we’ll also dish out some tips to avoid substrate snafus and ensure your leo’s home is nothing short of paradise.

Related: Our top tank for leopard geckos.

The Best Leopard Gecko Substrates

Paper Towels

Paper towels are a simple and budget-friendly leopard gecko substrate. They are absorbent, hygienic, easy to replace, and cheap. They also prevent the risk of ingestion or inhalation of other substrates that can cause impaction or respiratory problems. 

Cost-effectiveNot visually appealing
Easy to cleanMight not offer proper enrichment for your gecko
Suitable for geckos of all agesDo not allow your leopard gecko to burrow or hide

Tip: Paper towels are best for quarantine enclosures or when monitoring your gecko’s health.

To use paper towels as a leopard gecko substrate, you need to:

  • Choose unscented and unbleached paper towels that do not contain any chemicals or dyes.
  • Line the bottom of the enclosure with a layer of paper towels, ensuring they cover the entire surface.
  • Change the paper towels regularly, at least once a week or whenever they become soiled or wet.
  • Monitor your gecko’s health and behavior to ensure they are comfortable and happy with the paper towels.

Reptile Carpet

Reptile carpet is a popular substrate choice as it is soft, does not create dust, and provides a natural look. It’s also easy to clean, as you can remove it and wash it.

  • Pros: Visually appealing, reusable, and safe for geckos.
  • Cons: Requires regular cleaning and may harbor bacteria if not cleaned properly.

Tip: Regularly clean and replace the carpet to prevent bacterial growth.

How to install a reptile carpet:

  1. Clean the tank thoroughly before laying down the carpet.
  2. Measure the carpet to fit the tank and cut it to size if necessary.
  3. Lay down the carpet on the bottom of the tank, making sure it is flat and smooth.
  4. Add any decorations or hides that you want to include in the tank.
  5. Place a shallow water dish in the tank for the leopard gecko to drink from.
  6. Monitor the leopard gecko to ensure they are adjusting well to the new environment.


Newspaper is another inexpensive substrate option that is easy to replace and clean. It also allows for easy monitoring of your gecko’s waste.

  • Pros: Cost-effective, easy to clean, and suitable for geckos of all ages.
  • Cons: Not visually appealing, and may not offer proper enrichment.

Tip: Use non-toxic, soy-based ink newspapers to avoid potential harm to your gecko.

Stone Slabs

Stone slabs are an attractive and natural-looking option for leopard gecko enclosures. They help maintain consistent temperatures and aid in the shedding process.

  • Pros: Holds heat well, visually appealing, and assists with shedding.
  • Cons: Heavy, may be difficult to clean, and can be expensive.

Tip: Choose flat, smooth stones without sharp edges to avoid injury.


Tile is a versatile option that can mimic the look of natural stone. It is easy to clean and retains heat well.

  • Pros: Easy to clean, holds heat, and provides a natural appearance.
  • Cons: Can be cold when not heated, and sharp edges may pose a risk to geckos.

Tip: Select tiles with smooth edges and a non-slip finish.

Non-Adhesive Shelf Liner

Non-adhesive shelf liner is a practical substrate solution that is easy to clean and replace. It is also budget-friendly and provides some cushioning for geckos.

  • Pros: Inexpensive, easy to clean, and comfortable for geckos.
  • Cons: Not visually appealing, and may not offer proper enrichment.

Recommendation: Replace liner regularly to prevent bacterial buildup.

DIY Blended Substrate

A DIY blended substrate consists of safe materials, such as coconut coir, organic topsoil, and sand. This allows for a natural-looking habitat and encourages digging behavior.

  • Pros: Visually appealing, encourages natural behaviors, and customizable.
  • Cons: May require more maintenance and can be more expensive than other options.

Tip: Research and test the blend to ensure it is safe and suitable for your leopard gecko.

Best Loose Substrate for Leopard Geckos

Loose substrates are popular because they closely mimic a leopard gecko’s natural environment. This can help create a more enriching and comfortable habitat for your gecko. However, it’s important to choose the best options to ensure your pet’s safety and wellbeing.

Excavator clay 

Clay allows the gecko to dig and burrow, creating a habitat similar to what they experience in the wild.

Excavator clay also holds its shape well, so your reptile can have stable burrows and tunnels, which benefits their enrichment and overall happiness.

However, it’s important to note that excavator clay can become hard when it dries, so it needs to be regularly moistened to maintain its consistency.

Eco Earth

Eco earth is made from coconut husks. It’s inexpensive, retains heat, and is easily digestible. Eco Earth also has the added benefit of absorbing unpleasant odors and being easy to clean.

Both excavator clay and Eco Earth can provide a comfortable and natural environment for your gecko while minimizing the risks associated with accidental ingestion.

Most Hidable Substrate Options

Leopard geckos appreciate substrates that offer a secure place to hide and thrive. In this section, we’ll look at three popular hide-friendly substrates; sphagnum moss, coconut fiber, and wet paper towels.

Sphagnum Moss

Sphagnum moss is a natural and versatile substrate option for leopard geckos. It helps maintain humidity and provides excellent hiding spots for your pet.

  • Pros:
    • Maintains humidity levels
    • Provides a natural hiding spot
    • Biodegradable and eco-friendly
  • Cons:
    • Can be messy
    • Needs to be replaced regularly

To use sphagnum moss effectively, keep it damp but not overly wet. It is best used in the humid hide of the leopard gecko’s enclosure.

Coconut Fiber

Coconut fiber, also known as coir or coco husk, is another excellent substrate option that provides hiding opportunities for your leopard gecko.

  • Pros:
    • Highly absorbent and helps maintain humidity
    • Natural and organic
    • Eco-friendly
  • Cons:
    • Some geckos may accidentally ingest it
    • Can be dusty when dry

Coconut fiber substrate is best used in the moist hide area of your leopard gecko’s enclosure. Be sure to keep it damp but not soggy to prevent molding.

Wet Paper Towels

For a simple, cost-effective hiding substrate, consider using wet paper towels.

  • Pros:
    • Cost-effective
    • Easy to replace and clean
    • Provides desired humidity if kept damp
  • Cons:
    • Not as attractive or natural-looking
    • Must be replaced frequently to stay fresh and prevent molding

To use wet paper towels effectively, place them in the humid hide area of the enclosure, and ensure they stay damp but not overly wet. Replace them regularly, at least once weekly, to maintain cleanliness and prevent mold growth.

Understanding Leopard Gecko’s Natural Habitat

Leopard geckos originate from countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India.

These natural habitats consist of diverse landscapes with sparse vegetation, from semi-desert expanses to rocky terrains.

Being creatures of the night, leopard geckos often retreat to the safety of burrows and crevices during the day, a clever tactic to dodge the extreme heat.

In the wild, the types of substrate that leopard geckos regularly encounter include a mix of sandy soil, compact clay, and rock surfaces.

These substrates are more than just the ground they walk on; they offer a sense of familiarity and stability. As well as plenty of opportunities to hide— a necessary instinct for survival.

When keeping a leopard gecko in captivity, it’s important to make their environment feel as natural as possible.

Some considerations when selecting a leopard gecko substrates are:

  • Similarity to the gecko’s natural environment
  • Avoidance of loose particles that may cause impaction if ingested
  • Ability to retain heat to allow the gecko to thermoregulate effectively
  • Easy maintenance and cleaning to prevent bacterial growth and foul odors

Popular substrate choices for leopard geckos in captivity that meet these criteria include bioactive substrates, reptile sand mats, and reptile carpet. Each has its unique attributes and advantages.

The Role of Substrate in a Leopard Gecko’s Terrarium

Comfort and Behavior

Choosing the right substrate for a leopard gecko’s terrarium is a critical decision that directly impacts its comfort and natural behavior.

Different substrates offer varying textures, allowing your gecko to experience a habitat as close to its natural environment as possible. This is important as it helps encourage instinctual behaviors, one of which includes digging—a favorite pastime for many geckos.

Let’s consider some substrate options. First, there’s stone slate. This natural, eye-pleasing substrate provides a great surface for your gecko to move around on. It offers excellent grip, promoting healthy movement, and its uneven surface opens up opportunities for exploration, stimulating your pet’s curiosity.

Another popular choice is reptile carpet. This substrate is safe for your gecko, providing a comfortable surface for them to scamper about. Plus, it’s user-friendly for you. Reptile carpets are easy to clean, reducing maintenance time.

Health Implications

A primary concern with substrates is impaction, which happens when your gecko accidentally swallows some of the substrate material. This can lead to a dangerous digestive obstruction. Certain substrates, such as wood chips and sand, significantly increase the risk of impaction and should be avoided.

Another health concern is the humidity level in the terrarium. Leopard geckos require a certain humidity level for proper shedding and to prevent respiratory problems.

Substrates like paper towels or newspaper can be particularly useful in maintaining these levels. They’re easy to change, so you can control the humidity level more effectively, and they don’t hold excessive moisture, which could be detrimental to your gecko’s health.

Key Factors to Consider When Choosing Substrate

When selecting the best leopard gecko substrate, several key factors must be considered. These factors will help ensure the health and comfort of your pet


Some substrates can cause harm or discomfort to your pet, such as impaction or skin irritation. For example, loose substrates like sand can be ingested, potentially leading to impaction and digestive issues. To avoid these problems, opt for safe options such as reptile carpet or paper towels.

Humidity Control

Leopard geckos require a specific humidity level in their enclosure to remain healthy. Humidity control is essential to prevent shedding issues and respiratory infections.

Different substrates have varying abilities to maintain humidity levels. For example, coconut husks can retain moisture, helping maintain a suitable humidity level.

Ease of Cleaning

Maintaining a clean habitat for your leopard gecko is vital for their overall health. Therefore, the ease of cleaning is an important factor when choosing a substrate.

Some options, such as paper towels, are cheap and easy to replace, simplifying the cleaning process.

Other alternatives, like reptile carpet, can be conveniently removed and washed, ensuring a clean environment for your pet2.

Substrates to Avoid

When setting up a habitat for your leopard gecko, it’s crucial to be aware of the substrates that can cause harm to your pet. Several substrates can lead to impaction, injury, or an unhealthy living environment for your gecko.

Some substrates to avoid include:

  • Coconut Fiber (Coir)
  • Wood Chips and Shavings
  • Walnut Shells
  • Moss
  • Gravel or Pebbles
  • Corn Cob and Quartz

These substrates should be avoided due to various reasons. Coconut fiber and moss can lead to impaction if ingested, while wood chips and shavings can be abrasive and cause injuries.

Walnut shells and substrates with sharp edges can also injure a leopard gecko’s soft underbelly.

Gravel, pebbles, and quartz pose impaction risks and are uncomfortable to walk on.

Apart from posing an impaction risk, corn cob can also become moldy in humid environments, which can impact your gecko’s health.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is Loose Substrate Bad for Leopard Geckos?

Loose substrate can cause impaction in leopard geckos if ingested. However, some loose substrates, like coconut husks, can be safe if monitored carefully. If you want something low maintenance, stay away from loose substrates.

Is Sand a Good Substrate for Leopard Geckos?

Using sand as a substrate is generally not recommended because it poses a significant risk of impaction if ingested. It is essential to choose a safer alternative, like reptile carpet or shelf liner, which will minimize this hazard and provide a healthier environment for the gecko.

Is Dirt or Sand Better for Leopard Geckos?

Both dirt and sand carry an impaction risk for leopard geckos if ingested, making them unsuitable substrates. Opt for safer alternatives, such as stone slate, paper towel, or excavator clay, which will provide a secure and comfortable living space for the gecko without posing a threat to its health.

Can I Use Gravel in My Leopard Gecko Tank?

Using gravel as a substrate for leopard geckos is not recommended. It poses both an impaction risk and potential harm risks due to the rough and sometimes sharp surface. Instead, consider using safer options like reptile carpet, newspaper, or paper towels to maintain a comfortable and secure environment for the gecko.

Leave a Comment